Plaintiff Robert Weimer, Jr., purchased real property in Carnelian Bay in 1993. He refinanced the mortgage in 2006 with a loan from defendant Bank of America, N.A. (BANA).
After defaulting, plaintiff entered into a loan modification process with BANA. Subsequently, loan servicing was transferred, successively, to defendants Specialized Loan Servicing, LLC (SLS) and Nationstar Mortgage, LLC (Nationstar). According to plaintiff, BANA, SLS, and Nationstar successively each engaged in deliberate and negligent misconduct in the loan modification process.
In 2014, BANA transferred beneficial interest in the loan to defendant U.S. Bank, N. A. (U.S. Bank), as trustee for the Certificateholders of Banc of America Funding Corporation Mortgage Pass Through Certificates Series 2007-7. Eventually, Nationstar, acting as U.S. Bank’s agent, recorded a notice of trustee’s sale and had an agent enter onto the property and change the locks. After plaintiff commenced this action, BANA, U.S. Bank, and Nationstar demurred to a first amended complaint.
The trial court sustained the demurrer without leave to amend as to BANA, concluding that the action against it was time-barred. As to the other demurring defendants, the court sustained the demurrer with leave to amend. Plaintiff filed a second amended complaint, asserting causes of action sounding in intentional and negligent misrepresentation, negligence, trespass to land, seeking declaratory relief, and asserting violations of the unfair competition law (Bus. & Prof. Code, § 17200 et seq.). U.S. Bank and Nationstar demurred, SLS separately demurred, and the trial court sustained the demurrers without leave to amend.
On appeal, plaintiff asserts that the trial court erred in concluding that the action against BANA was time-barred because BANA’s actions were part of a civil conspiracy with the other defendants, and the timeliness of plaintiff’s action against BANA must be measured from the last overt act.
Plaintiff further asserts that the trial court erred in sustaining the demurrers to the second amended complaint because he sufficiently stated each cause of action. Plaintiff also asserts that the trial court should have granted him leave to amend, however, he largely maintains that his complaint required no amendment. In the unpublished portion of this opinion, we conclude that the action as asserted against BANA was time-barred.
The California Court of Appeal further concluded that plaintiff sufficiently stated causes of action sounding in intentional and negligent misrepresentation and violations of the unfair competition law against the remaining defendants. In the published portion of this opinion, based on the test in Biakanja v. Irving (1958) 49 Cal.2d 647 (Biakanja) and the analysis in Southern California Gas Leak Cases (2019) 7 Cal.5th 381, 397 (Gas Leak), the California Court of Appeal concluded the remaining defendants.
“An order sustaining a demurrer is usually not immediately appealable, because it is not on its face a final judgment. [Citation.] However, it may be treated as a judgment for purposes of appeal when, like a formal judgment, it disposes of the action and precludes further proceedings.” (Thaler v. Household Finance Corp. (2000) 80 Cal.App.4th 1093, 1098.) “[A]n appellate court may deem an order sustaining a demurrer to incorporate a judgment of dismissal.” (Molien v. Kaiser Foundation Hospitals (1980) 27 Cal.3d 916, 920, disapproved on another ground in Burgess v. Superior Court (1992) 2 Cal.4th 1064, 1074.)
“[T]he complaint must be liberally construed and survives a general demurrer insofar as it states, however inartfully, facts disclosing some right to relief.” (Longshore v. County of Ventura, (1979) 25 Cal.3d 14, 22; see also Daniels v. Select Portfolio Servicing, Inc. (2016) 246 Cal.App.4th 1150, 1162, courts decide “whether a cause of action has been stated under any legal theory when the allegations are liberally construed”].)
“The statute of limitations to be applied in a particular case is determined by the nature of the right sued upon or the principal purpose of the action, not by the form of the action or the relief requested.” (Barton v. New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (1996) 43 Cal.App.4th 1200, 1207, citing Davies v. Krasna (1975) 14 Cal.3d 502, 515 11 & Jefferson v. J.E. French Co. (1960) 54 Cal.2d 717, 718.) “What is significant for statute of limitations purposes is the primary interest invaded by defendant’s wrongful conduct.” (Barton, at p. 1207.)
“Proof of a civil conspiracy triggers the ‘last overt act’ doctrine.” (People ex rel. Kennedy v. Beaumont Investment, Ltd. (2003) 111 Cal.App.4th 102, 138.) “[W]hen a civil conspiracy is properly alleged and proved, the statute of limitations does not begin to run on any part of a plaintiff’s claims until the ‘last overt act’ pursuant to the conspiracy has been completed.” (Wyatt v. Union Mortgage Co. (1979) 24 Cal.3d 773, 786.)
In AREI II Cases (2013) 216 Cal.App.4th 1004 the court stated: “It is well settled that ‘ “[b]are” allegations and “rank” conjecture do not suffice for a civil conspiracy.’ [Citation.] A party seeking to establish a civil conspiracy ‘must show that each member of the conspiracy acted in concert and came to a mutual understanding to accomplish a common and unlawful plan, and that one or more of them committed an overt act to further it. [Citation.] It is not enough that the [conspirators] knew of an intended wrongful act, they must agree—expressly or tacitly— to achieve it.’ [Citation.] It must be recognized, however, that because of the very nature of a conspiracy, ‘its existence must often be inferentially and circumstantially derived from the character of the acts done, the relations of the parties and other facts and circumstances suggestive of concerted action.’ [Citation.] While a complaint must contain more than a bare allegation the defendants conspired, a complaint is sufficient if it apprises the defendant of the ‘character and type of facts and circumstances upon which she was relying to establish the conspiracy.’ ” (AREI II Cases, at p. 1022.)
Here, the order sustaining BANA’s demurrer to the first amended complaint without leave to amend ended plaintiff’s ability to proceed further in the trial court with his case against BANA. The only step left to make that order appealable as to BANA was the formal entry of a dismissal order or judgment. BANA has not sought dismissal of the appeal. We will deem the order on the demurrer to the first amended complaint to incorporate a judgment of dismissal as to BANA and will review the order. (See Sisemore v. Master Financial, Inc. (2007) 151 Cal.App.4th 1386, 1396.)
Therefore, the California Court of Appeal will reversed the judgments of dismissal as to U.S. Bank, SLS, and Nationstar and reversed the orders sustaining the demurrers as to the causes of action in the second amended complaint for intentional misrepresentation (first cause of action), negligent misrepresentation (second cause of action), negligence (third cause of action), and violations of the unfair competition law (sixth cause of action).
In all other respects, the judgments were affirmed.
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